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Tuesday, December 7

  1. page ADHD edited ... Attention-deficit Hyperactivity disorder is defined by the DSM IV as such: “The essential feat…
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    Attention-deficit Hyperactivity disorder is defined by the DSM IV as such: “The essential feature of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more frequent and severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development.”
    ADHD is perhaps the disorder with which regular education teachers are most familiar. This could be due to the fact that it is not categorized as a learning disability, but as an “other health impairment.” It is a disorder characterized by its effects on the student’s ability to focus, sit still during instruction, and/or control impulsivity of action. Because such characteristics as these are inherent to children in general many teachers seem to believe the prevalence of ADHD in school-age children is higher than the actual statistics show. In reality, only 3%-7% of school-age children (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) are affected by the disorder. But because environmental factors, namely a child’s upbringing, can directly contribute to behavioral patterns in school, such undesired behaviors can be too easily attributed to undiagnosed ADHD.
    II. History of ADHD
    Though attention deficits have surely afflicted people throughout human history, it was not until George Still, in 1902, first wrote about attention problems of his subjects. Though there was no such diagnosis of ADHD at the time, his observations included many characteristics that would later be associated with the disorder. Over time, as these observable attention deficits were being studied more prevalently, the symptoms were crystallized into many names, such as “hyperkinetic impulse disorder”, and “hyperactive child syndrome” (Barkley, 1997). This term, in the DSM II, then became “hyperkinetic reaction of childhood” (Barkley, 1997). It is important to understand though, that the disorder, throughout evolution of its definition and diagnosis, was mainly understood as a syndrome characterized by hyperactivity. The latter term did, however, contain in its definition, a mention of attention problems and distractibility. By 1980, the disorder was renamed Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD).
    And finally, by 1990, because of the work of researchers like Russell Barkley, the hyper-activity component of the disorder was included, thus it was renamed Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (Barkley, 1997). The structure of this wording is very important. It is the same structure that currently leads to misunderstanding of the disorder’s manifestations. The backslash (/) punctuation serves to show that the disorder can be characterized by either attention-deficit or hyperactivity, and that it could be a combination of both. Unfortunately, the misunderstanding of ADHD has come full-circle, where now it is seen more as a hyperactivity disorder, and that a diagnosis of ADD, or attention deficit disorder, would characterize those with more of the attention deficit component. But all attention deficits diagnoses are given the label ADHD, regardless of which end of the spectrum the individual falls.
    III.
    Causes of
    The executive functioning of the frontal lobe is a critical focus area of research on ADHD, as many researchers have been working to build evidence to support the connection of its functioning with the manifestations of the disorder. While there are many factors that researchers believe contribute to ADHD, such as genetics, exposure to maternal smoke and alcohol during pregnancy, and other environmental factors, the executive functioning of the frontal lobe is where the difference lies between individuals with the disorder and those without. If one is searching for information on ADHD, then overloading the content of a wikispace such as this with all of the possible causes does no real good.
    If you are interested in more information about possible causes, here is a helpful and informative link: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/what-causes-adhd.shtml.
    ...
    References:
    Barbaresi, W;, Katusic, S;, Colligan, R;, Weaver, A., & Jacobsen, S. (2007). Long-term school outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A population-based perspective, Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 265-273.
    Barkley, Russell A., (1997). ADHD and the Nature of Self Control, 4-6. New York, New York.
    Brown, Thomas E. (2009). ADD/ADHD and Impaired Executive Function in Clinical Practice. Current Attention Disorder Reports, 37-41.
    Brown TE: Attention Deficit Disorder: The Unfocused Mind in Children and Adults. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; 2005.
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    6:23 am

Monday, December 6

  1. page Enabling or Disabling edited ... Scientific Research Based Interventions (SRBI) Universal Design for Learning (UDL) ... acc…
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    Scientific Research Based Interventions (SRBI)
    Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
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    accommodations and modifications
    What is the role of the paraprofessional? {http://actvolunteercenter.net/wp-content/plugins/smooth-slider/images/teacher-helping-students-write1.jpg}
    By the Connecticut State Department of Education’s definition, a paraprofessional “works under the supervision of the teacher” assisting “teachers and/or other professional educators or therapists in the delivery of instructional and related services to students.” While inclusive practices continue to grow and paraprofessionals play an important role in improving students’ learning environment, schools continue to seek out paraprofessional support to achieve the right balance between helping a student without causing too much dependence on the paraprofessional (SERC Spring/Summer 2010).
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  2. page ADHD edited ... By Travis Meyer I. Introduction ... frequent and sever severe than is ADHD is perhaps …
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    By Travis Meyer
    I. Introduction
    ...
    frequent and seversevere than is
    ADHD is perhaps the disorder with which regular education teachers are most familiar. This could be due to the fact that it is not categorized as a learning disability, but as an “other health impairment.” It is a disorder characterized by its effects on the student’s ability to focus, sit still during instruction, and/or control impulsivity of action. Because such characteristics as these are inherent to children in general many teachers seem to believe the prevalence of ADHD in school-age children is higher than the actual statistics show. In reality, only 3%-7% of school-age children (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) are affected by the disorder. But because environmental factors, namely a child’s upbringing, can directly contribute to behavioral patterns in school, such undesired behaviors can be too easily attributed to undiagnosed ADHD.
    II. Causes of ADHD
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  3. page ADHD edited ... Activation: Individuals with ADHD have difficulties starting tasks, which can be characterized…
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    Activation: Individuals with ADHD have difficulties starting tasks, which can be characterized by excessive procrastination. As Brown states, “It is as if they cannot get themselves started until the point at which they perceive the task to be an acute emergency” (Brown, 2009). Think of the frustration for the sufferer—they are perceived as careless and lazy, because they do not start the task until the very last minute. This is caused, not by some motivational flaw in them as a person, but by the low levels of activity in the brain that would otherwise allow the individual to perceive the appropriateness of starting a task promptly.
    Focus: Brown uses the descriptions of individuals with ADHD to brilliantly illustrate what it feels like to focus on a task. In fact, the descriptions can really only be so clearly understood and thus illustrated by someone who has first-hand knowledge of the disorder’s effects. They describe trying to complete a task while distractions around them as well as their own thoughts continually get in the way. And the example of a radio station fading in and out while trying to listen to the music is a perfect analogy. It should then be easy for a teacher to understand how a student could quickly fall behind in a class despite giving the students ample time to read, work, and prepare to execute new skills.
    ...
    so, but areis actually strugglingstruggling, feeling not
    Emotion: This aspect of executive function helps to see the interconnection between all of the executive functions. Many with the disorder find it difficult to dismiss emotions such as frustration, anger, worry, disappointment, desire (Brown, 2009), but instead focus too heavily on them, allowing them to pervade their every thought. It becomes apparent, when considering this difficulty, how the simplest tasks may not even be attempted by an individual with ADHD if they are experiencing one of these emotions.
    Memory: The description of memory functioning helps to understand why a task may not be completed by an individual with ADHD. Brown shows how they have described having exceptional long-term memory, but struggle to remember things that have just occurred. This difficulty only adds to their inability to complete tasks by providing another, perhaps more significant, hurdle to overcome.
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    1:19 pm
  4. page ADHD edited ... ADHD is perhaps the disorder with which regular education teachers are most familiar. This cou…
    ...
    ADHD is perhaps the disorder with which regular education teachers are most familiar. This could be due to the fact that it is not categorized as a learning disability, but as an “other health impairment.” It is a disorder characterized by its effects on the student’s ability to focus, sit still during instruction, and/or control impulsivity of action. Because such characteristics as these are inherent to children in general many teachers seem to believe the prevalence of ADHD in school-age children is higher than the actual statistics show. In reality, only 3%-7% of school-age children (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) are affected by the disorder. But because environmental factors, namely a child’s upbringing, can directly contribute to behavioral patterns in school, such undesired behaviors can be too easily attributed to undiagnosed ADHD.
    II. Causes of ADHD
    ...
    environmental factors, it is the executive
    ...
    frontal lobe ultimately is where
    If you are interested in more information about possible causes, here is a helpful and informative link: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/what-causes-adhd.shtml.
    So in terms of causes of ADHD, the information contained herein is confined to the connection of executive function to the symptoms of the disorder. This is because the primary goal of this research is to help the parent, sibling, friend, educator, or the ADHD sufferer himself understand the disorder and how it affects the individual with the disorder. In turn, it is my hope that this will help those supporting the individual with ADHD be able to understand what he deals with on a daily basis. For the sufferer, hopefully this research will provide some insight into why he feels the way he does, and how he can help himself.
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    1:13 pm
  5. page ADHD edited ... The executive functioning of the frontal lobe is a critical focus area of research on ADHD, as…
    ...
    The executive functioning of the frontal lobe is a critical focus area of research on ADHD, as many researchers have been working to build evidence to support the connection of its functioning with the manifestations of the disorder. While there are many factors that researchers believe contribute to ADHD, such as genetics, exposure to maternal smoke and alcohol during pregnancy, and other environmental factors, it is the executive functioning of the frontal lobe ultimately is where the difference lies between individuals with the disorder and those without. If one is searching for information on ADHD, then overloading the content of a wikispace such as this with all of the possible causes does no real good.
    If you are interested in more information about possible causes, here is a helpful and informative link: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/what-causes-adhd.shtml.
    ...
    how it effectsaffects the individual
    ...
    functioning is because of an imbalance
    III. Symptoms:
    These are the six clusters of cognitive functions that tend to be impaired in individuals with ADHD: (For a complete description of each executive function, click the link below and read the article by Thomas E. Brown, PhD)
    ...
    Activation: Individuals with ADHD have difficulties starting tasks, which can be characterized by excessive procrastination. As Brown states, “It is as if they cannot get themselves started until the point at which they perceive the task to be an acute emergency” (Brown, 2009). Think of the frustration for the sufferer—they are perceived as careless and lazy, because they do not start the task until the very last minute. This is caused, not by some motivational flaw in them as a person, but by the low levels of activity in the brain that would otherwise allow the individual to perceive the appropriateness of starting a task promptly.
    Focus: Brown uses the descriptions of individuals with ADHD to brilliantly illustrate what it feels like to focus on a task. In fact, the descriptions can really only be so clearly understood and thus illustrated by someone who has first-hand knowledge of the disorder’s effects. They describe trying to complete a task while distractions around them as well as their own thoughts continually get in the way. And the example of a radio station fading in and out while trying to listen to the music is a perfect analogy. It should then be easy for a teacher to understand how a student could quickly fall behind in a class despite giving the students ample time to read, work, and prepare to execute new skills.
    ...
    that ADHD effectsaffects sleep, and
    Emotion: This aspect of executive function helps to see the interconnection between all of the executive functions. Many with the disorder find it difficult to dismiss emotions such as frustration, anger, worry, disappointment, desire (Brown, 2009), but instead focus too heavily on them, allowing them to pervade their every thought. It becomes apparent, when considering this difficulty, how the simplest tasks may not even be attempted by an individual with ADHD if they are experiencing one of these emotions.
    Memory: The description of memory functioning helps to understand why a task may not be completed by an individual with ADHD. Brown shows how they have described having exceptional long-term memory, but struggle to remember things that have just occurred. This difficulty only adds to their inability to complete tasks by providing another, perhaps more significant, hurdle to overcome.
    ...
    Social consequences of ADHD are caused by the students’ hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention during class. It can be difficult for these students to make friends because their classmates can have difficulty tolerating their disruptive behavior (DeNisco et a., 2005).
    Interventions for students with ADHD
    ...
    the Function-Based InterventionAssessment approach, or
    One such study illustrated the effectiveness of such interventions. The study by Brenna Stahr et al. (2006), focused on a fourth-grade boy with ADHD whose off-task behaviors where exhibited at high rates throughout the school day. Through interviews, observations, rating scales, and experimental analysis, the interventionists were able to determine that the student’s behavior was maintained by the teacher’s attention to these negative behaviors.
    As a result of the systematic FBA procedures being carried out, the interventionists were able to implement self-monitoring strategies and a checklist. They were able to determine that planned ignoring would allow for extinction of attention seeking behaviors. And the interventionists were able to develop a system for the student to request help and gain praise. None of the successful interventions implemented would have been possible without FBA.
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    1:11 pm
  6. page Enabling or Disabling edited ... Connecticut State Department of Education Bureau of Accountability and Improvement. (April 201…
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    Connecticut State Department of Education Bureau of Accountability and Improvement. (April 2010). Paraprofessionals and SRBI, Volume 1 (Issue 1)
    Connecticut State Department of Education. Paraprofessional Information and Resources.
    Connecticut State Department of Education Bureau of Accountability and Improvement. A Paraprofessional’s Guide to SRBI (Scientific Research-Based
    Interventions).
    State
    State Education Resource
    ...
    Partners Initiative.
    State Education Resource Center (SERC). (Spring/Summer 2010). The Roles of the Connecticut Paraprofessional: Challenging, Complex.

    //The Rhode Island Technical Assistance Project (RITAP). (February 2010).// Effective Use of Teacher Assistants (TA’s) – What is the Research Saying?
    Scientific Research based Interventions (SRBI) and School Wide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS):
    ...
    Council For Exceptional Children. (August 2008). Improving Executive Function Skills—An Innovative Strategy that May Enhance Learning for All Children.
    Lenz, B., Deshler, D., Kissam, B. (2003). Teaching Content to All: Evidence-Based Inclusive Practices in Middle and Secondary Schools.
    National Dissemination Center For Children With Disabilities. Understanding UD.
    National Center on Universal Design for Learning. UDL Guidelines, Version 1.0.
    University of Connecticut. Universal Design for Instruction in Postsecondary Education.
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    12:44 pm
  7. page Enabling or Disabling edited ... University of Connecticut. Universal Design for Instruction in Postsecondary Education. Unive…
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    University of Connecticut. Universal Design for Instruction in Postsecondary Education.
    Universal Design Principles
    Universal Design for Instruction- UConn
    Universal Design for Learning - OSEP
    Resources for Teachers: Implementing Effective Accommodations and Modifications:
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    12:43 pm
  8. page Standardized Tests and Students with Disabilities edited ... Causes additional paperwork for special educators, taking away from instructional time for the…
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    Causes additional paperwork for special educators, taking away from instructional time for the students (Harvey, 2004)
    IEP goals do not necessarily relate to state standards, meaning students may not be tested on the material they are being instructed on (Harvey, 2004)
    ...
    on NCLB Video
    Video
    on the
    {http://www.idgresearch.com/wp-content/themes/idg-one/images/puzzle-lg.jpg} IV. Areas of Future Research:
    The mandates for inclusion of students with disabilities in accountability and assessment systems is still relatively new. Schools were not being held accountable for the achievement of students with disabilities until provisions to IDEA in 1997, with stricter mandates coming in 2001 with the passing of NCLB. Accountability and assessment systems have been a controversial topic across the nation, with sanctions and rewards given based on the ability of schools to make AYP. The mandated inclusion of students identified as special education has raised concern for unintended consequences for these students. Future research on this topic should focus exclusively on the impact of standardized assessment on students with disabilities in the areas below:
    ...
    Roach, A. T., & Elliot, S. N. (2010). Educational evaluation and policy analysis: The influence of access to general education curriculum on alternate assessment performance of students with significant cognitive disabilities
    Salvia, J., Ysseldyke, J. E., & Bolt, S. (2010). Assessment in special and inclusive education (11th ed.) Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
    ...
    12(2), 107-126.
    YouTube. Retrieved December 5, 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/
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  9. page Standardized Tests and Students with Disabilities edited ... Most students undergo assessment on one of two forms depending on their level of need for modi…
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    Most students undergo assessment on one of two forms depending on their level of need for modifications that do not detract from general content knowledge constructs. These forms are either regular grade-level assessment or alternative assessment based on grade-level academic achievement standards (AA-GLAS). Typical grade level assessments would appear in a non-modified form and measure student progress on same state grade level content standards as all students. AA-GLAS formatted assessments still assess test subjects on core content standards but may appear in a different format. Performance on an AA-GLAS assessment would define a student’s level of proficiency as it relates to grade-level achievement but with accommodations that enable test populations to better adapt to test items. For example, this may involve an assessment be printed with larger text for an individual with a visual impairment, or being read aloud. While these two accommodations would allow a student to perform closer to their true ability level, the difficulty of the assessment is unchanged.
    Alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) are appropriate forms of assessment for students who have not responded adequately to appropriate instructional protocols, but still aligned with grade level content standards the student is enrolled in. This assessment form may still be challenging for an eligible student. However, the level of difficulty on an AA-MAS assessment may be less than that of the standard grade-level achievement level. For example, on a mathematics assessment that targets multiple digit addition, an AA-MAS assessment form may not have any test items that involve regrouping of numbers while the standard assessment form did. In the state of Connecticut both the Connecticut Mastery Test (CMT) and Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT), make provisions for a MAS form. While they consistently measure grade level content standards for eligible students, they are “designed to be more appropriate for those special education students whose disability would preclude them during a given school year from achieving grade-level proficiency on the standard test” (Salvia, J., Ysseldyke, J. E., & Bolt, S., 2010, Chapter 22).
    ...
    content instruction.
    *Information
    *Information in the
    {http://ellenblickman.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/books-computer.jpg} VI. Additional Resources:
    The Connecticut State Department of Education: This website has an entire piece devoted to assessment. It provides information both on the CMT (used for elementary and middle school students) and the CAPT (used for high school students). This website is a great resource for teachers and parents in the state of Connecticut. It provides details on scheduling, past assessment data, and available accommodations and modifications.
    The U.S. Department of Education: This website offers a lot of information about education for the entire country. There is a link on the top right of the page that brings up a page on NCLB. Once on the NCLB portion of the page, it offers information on accountability, methods, and links to the actual act itself. This is a very important cite to understand the nuances of the NCLB Act of 2001.
    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: The IDEA website is a branch off of the U.S. Department of Education website. On the IDEA site it gives a comprehensive guide to special education law. Along the left hand side of the page are links to specific areas of special education. There are links to IEPs as well as district and state level assessments.
    National Center on Educational Outcomes: This website offers a great resource on topics and tools related to educational outcomes for students. There is an entire portion devoted to 'Topics for Students with Disabilities.' This center has also done studies of the impact of accommodations on students with disabilities. The data from these studies can be found on this site. However, as mentioned in our areas of future research, these studies have all been small scale in scope.
    VII. References
    ...
    from http://www.csde.state.ct.us/public/cedar/assessment/index.htm
    Bay

    Bay
    district schools.
    ...
    from http://www.bay.k12.fl.us/departments/divoftandlk12/K12Departments/StandardizedAssessment/tabid/1936/Default.aspx
    Cox,

    Cox,
    M. L.,
    ...
    27(6-), 346-354.
    Gamble-Risley,

    Gamble-Risley,
    M. (2006).
    ...
    33(13), 38-42.
    Harvey,

    Harvey,
    C. (2004).
    ...
    31(10), 68.
    Jennings,

    Jennings,
    J. L.,
    ...
    31(2), 153-175.
    Jordan,

    Jordan,
    W. J.
    ...
    34(1), 142-178.
    Kauffman,

    Kauffman,
    J. M.,
    ...
    85(8), 613.
    Nagle,

    Nagle,
    K. M.,
    ...
    Research Institute.
    O'Malley,

    O'Malley,
    J. M.,
    ...
    2(3), 213.
    Roach,

    Roach,
    A. T.,
    ...
    cognitive disabilities
    Salvia,

    Salvia,
    J., Ysseldyke,
    ...
    Cengage Learning.
    Schulte, A. C., & Villwock, D. N. (2004). Using high-stakes tests to derive school-level measures of special education efficacy. Exceptionality, 12(2), 107-126.
    ...
    2010, from
    http://www.youtube.com/
    http://www.youtube.com/
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